Disturbi del Sé e schizotipia: dalla schizofrenia latente al disturbo schizotipico di personalità
In the last twenty years, there has been increasing interest in schizotypal personality disorders, which have gained further nosographic significance having been listed amongst the risk factors for developing psychosis. However, despite that, the role of schizotypy in early detection and recognition of psychosis still remains unclear. The Danish group headed by Josef Parnas tried to define the expressive and experiential phenomena of both schizophrenia and schizotypy. From their perspective, schizotypal personality disorders, being closely associated with the presence of self-disorders, are predictive of a core of schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability. Given the hypothesis that self-disorders are core trait features of psychosis, in particular of schizophrenic psychosis, their identification in prodromal phases could increase the predictive value of the criteria that are currently used for early detection of risk states (UHR and Basic Symptoms). Moreover, it could further reduce false-positives. From a diagnostic point of view, the presence of a schizotypal personality disorder might allow detection of a more hidden core of schizophrenic spectrum vulnerability even when the presence of psychotic symptoms, although they are attenuated, remains uncertain.